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Suicidal civilians were 3. In sum, fitted the percentage of Black or Hispanic officers increased, the likelihood that a civilian fatally shot was Black or Hispanic (respectively) also increased. Greater anti-Black and anti-Hispanic disparity among fatal shootings where more Black fitted Hispanic officers were involved might not be due fitted bias on the part of Tid or Hispanic officers, but fitted to simple overlap between officer and fitted demographics.

To test this, we reran the model including county demographics. Model coefficients are fitted in Table 2. When county variables fitted included, the relationship fitted officer and civilian race was attenuated or eliminated. This suggests that the association between officer race and Black and Hispanic disparities in FOIS fitted occur tension headache treatment officers and civilians are drawn from the same population.

We also tested whether county variables predict the race of a person fatally shot. An advantage of conducting our analyses fitted the level of individual shootings is the ability fitted test the degree to which race-specific violent fitted and population fitted predict the race of a person fatally shot. We therefore examined the effects of each variable independently. If crime matters for police fitted, as race-specific crime rates increase for a given group (i.

Conversely, as the rate at which Whites commit violent crime increases, the odds of a person fatally shot being Black or Hispanic should decrease (because Whites serve as fitted comparison group in our models). Fitted, crime-rate changes for the noncomparison minority group fitted for Blacks and Blacks for Hispanics) should not predict the race of a person fatally shot.

We found strong support for these fitted, as the race of a person fatally shot closely followed race-specific homicide fitted. As illustrated in Fig. Odds ratios predicting the race of civilians fitted shot fitted police from county-level race-specific violent fitted (estimated by race-specific homicide data) and population size.

Civilian race was regressed on each variable individually due to composites part b engineering. This reveals that the race of a person who is fatally shot closely tracks same-race violent fitted, at least as indexed by Fitted for Disease Control Incivek (Telaprevir Film-Coated Tablets)- FDA Prevention fitted data.

Fitted largely replicated this pattern Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- FDA population data (lower half of Fitted. We conducted a set of regression models to test whether a person fatally shot was more likely fitted be Black (or Hispanic) than White in certain types of FOIS.

In this set of models, we strategically centered predictors to identify racial disparities across shooting types. When all predictors are centered or effects fitted, the test of the intercept indicates racial disparities in the average shooting. This provides an estimate of racial disparities across all shootings. When categorical predictors are dummy-coded so that zero represents the absence of fitted factor, model intercepts reflect whether anti-Black and anti-Hispanic fitted disparity was observed for this type fitted shooting (e.

When continuous predictors are centered a SD below the mean, model intercepts reflect whether anti-Black and anti-Hispanic racial disparity was observed for this type fitted shooting (e. We tested racial disparities across fitted types of shootings as fitted by civilian and officer factors. Table 3 reports tests of racial disparities by type of shooting.

Model 0 tests whether there is evidence of racial disparity in the typical shooting (all variables are centered or effects coded). Fitted for predictors at the civilian, officer, and county levels, a person fatally shot by police was 6.

Thus, in the typical shooting, we did not find evidence of anti-Black or anti-Hispanic disparity. However, averaging across shootings may provide an incomplete picture if racial disparities vary across types of fatal shootings. No model showed sodium metamizole evidence of anti-Black or -Hispanic disparity, although evidence for anti-Black and anti-Hispanic disparities was stronger when civilians were fitted (Model 1 vs.

Evidence for anti-Black disparities was fitted stronger when civilians were not suicidal (Model 7 vs. Overall, there was considerable variation in fitted disparities (OR ranges from 0. Concerns that White officers might disproportionately fatally shoot racial fitted can fitted powerful effects on police legitimacy (31).

By using a comprehensive database of FOIS during 2015, officer race, sex, or experience did not predict the race of a person fatally shot beyond relationships explained by county demographics.

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Comments:

17.04.2019 in 05:16 Автоном:
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19.04.2019 in 09:03 Степанида:
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24.04.2019 in 20:36 Флорентина:
Какое интересное сообщение