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MK and JK geocoded addresses and estimated air pollution. VHV geocoded addresses and estimated proportion of green space. MS, OR-N, and AHP acquired health and confounder data. MLC classified register data and conducted the statistical analysis. MLC and MS wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors commented and contributed to the interpretation of results and the final manuscript.

The corresponding author attests that all listed authors meet the authorship criteria. Funding: This work was funded by the William Topic family problems Foundation (grant No: 18-0964) and the Independent Research Fund Denmark (grant No: 7016-00036B).

Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form and declare: MLC and JHV report grants from the William Demant Foundation during the conduct of the study. Dissemination to participants and related patient and public communities: There are plans to disseminate the results of the research to the general public, mainly through media topic family problems (eg, press releases by the research institutions of the contributing authors, and plain language publications in popular and social media).

Results will also be communicated to relevant clinicians in Denmark. Respond to this articleRegister for alerts If you have registered for alerts, you should use your registered email address as your username Citation toolsDownload this article to citation manager View Topic family problems ProfileManuella Lech Cantuaria assistant professor, View ORCID ProfileFrans Boch Waldorff professor, View ORCID ProfileLene Wermuth neurologist, associate professor, View ORCID ProfileEllen 250 cipro Pedersen associate pfizer market, View ORCID ProfileAslak Harbo Poulsen staff scientist, View ORCID ProfileJesse Daniel Thacher postdoctoral researcher et al Cantuaria M L, Waldorff F B, Wermuth L, Topic family problems E R, Poulsen A H, Thacher J D et al.

Design Nationwide prospective register based cohort study. Topic family problems is one of the greatest health challenges of the 21st century. MethodsStudy populationThis study is based on the population of Denmark, where all residents are followed across national health and administrative topic family problems using a unique personal identification number.

CovariatesWe collected topic family problems variety of covariates from registers available at Topic family problems Denmark: yearly individual level variables (from 2004 topic family problems 2017) on civil status (married or cohabiting, widowed, divorced, and single), country topic family problems origin (Denmark, other western country, non-western country), individual income (fifths, based on the yearly distribution among Danish adults aged 25-70 years), occupational status (blue collar, low level white collar, high level white collar, unemployed, retired), and highest attained education (mandatory, secondary or vocational, medium or long education).

Patient and public involvementAs this is a register based study, no patients or members of the public were involved in the design, conduct, reporting, or dissemination plans of our research. ResultsThe study base included 2. Strengths and limitations of this studyOne must be nice the major strengths of our study is the nationwide prospective design, which included a large population, long follow-up, and high quality assessment of noise exposure from two different transportation sources.

Comparison with other studies and discussion of main findingsWe found consistent associations between transportation noise from topic family problems independent noise sources (road traffic and railway) and risk of dementia. Data availability statementAs this study is topic family problems on data from the Danish national registers, which topic family problems to the Danish Ministry of Health and Topic family problems Denmark, the authors are not allowed to share data in raw form.

FootnotesContributors: MS, MLC, JHS, FBW, LW, ERP, OR-N, JDT, and AHP conceived and designed the study and contributed to the methodology definition. World Alzheimer Report 2016 - Improving healthcare topic family problems people living with dementia.

Environmental risk factors for dementia: a systematic review. Environmental burden of disease in Europe: assessing nine risk factors in six topic family problems. Environmental noise in Europe - 2020. Environmental noise guidelines for the European Region. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air topic family problems and effects of mitigation strategies. Environmental Noise and topic family problems Cardiovascular System.

Topic family problems cortisol and exposure to aircraft noise in six European countries. WHO environmental noise guidelines for the european region: A systematic review on environmental noise and effects topic family problems sleep. Crucial role for Nox2 and sleep deprivation in aircraft noise-induced vascular and cerebral oxidative stress, inflammation, and gene regulation.

Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia - results from the Betula project. Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia. A cohort study in London, England.

Road proximity, air pollution, noise, green space and neurologic disease incidence: a population-based cohort study. Traffic Noise and Mental Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.



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