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Fertilization describes the process by which a single sperm gradually penetrates the layers of an egg to form a new cell ("zygote"). This usually occurs in the fallopian tubes and can take up to 24 hours. There is only a short window during which an egg can be fertilized. Implantation of the preembryo in the uterine lining begins about five days after fertilization.

Implantation can be completed as early as eight days or as late as 18 days after fertilization, but usually takes about 14 days. Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA one-third and one-half of all fertilized eggs never fully implant.

A pregnancy is considered to be established only after implantation is complete. The federal government has long accepted this definition of pregnancy and, by extension, what constitutes its prevention. For example, the federal regulations designed to implement the Hyde Amendment-the provision that blocks the use of public funds to pay for abortion services for low-income women-say that although funding is not available for abortions, it is available for "drugs or devices to prevent implantation of the fertilized ovum.

During President Clinton's last week in office, his administration published an overhaul of the long-standing rules Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA research involving human subjects. Shortly after President Bush came into office, his administration suspended those Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA and reissued a regulation of its own at the end of 2001.

Like the proposed Clinton regulation, however, the rules promulgated by the Bush administration, which remain in effect today, Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA that pregnancy "encompasses the period of time from implantation until delivery. Significantly, however, all of the five states that do define the term equate it with fertilization. These provisions are found in different areas of the state Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA codes, including those that establish the legal requirements for abortion services (17 states), prescribe penalties for assaulting a pregnant woman (seven states) and restrict fetal research (one state).

Most of the 18 states have several different provisions, sometimes across different types of statutes, and sometimes even within the same section of law. Alabama, for example, has seven definitions in its abortion code-three refer to conception and four to fertilization. And some states seem to use the terms conception, fertilization and implantation interchangeably, even though they have different medical meanings and significance.

For example, Louisiana's abortion code and its statutes concerning assault on pregnant women use all three terms, at times within a single definition. What is motivating this interest and activity is not entirely clear. Certainly, it would appear to stem from the complex politics of the abortion issue and from the long-standing campaign of some antiabortion activists to personify the fetus Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA portray it, often using language as a powerful tool, as a baby from the moment of fertilization (see box, page 9).

In this regard, it is likely that the proponents of the state laws may have been unaware of how the various contraceptive methods actually work, and were probably not taking aim at them directly.

In fact, of the 18 Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA that have some definition of pregnancy as beginning at fertilization or conception, 12 define abortion as the termination of a "known" pregnancy.

Furthermore, two of these states (Arizona and Texas) Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA exclude contraceptives from their definitions of abortion, even though they use fertilization as the starting point for pregnancy elsewhere in their statutes. Legislative activity at both the federal and state levels around the issue of fetal pain highlight how the inconsistency with which terminology is being used in ongoing policy debates could have real-world implications.

Legislation pending in Congress would require that women obtaining abortions after a certain point in pregnancy be Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA of bipolar ii disorder capacity of a fetus to feel pain and be offered anesthesia that could be administered directly to the fetus. The legislation repeatedly refers to that point as diabetes of type 2 diabetes weeks after fertilization.

As a result, the federal mandate, should it be enacted, in fact would be effective for what doctors would consider to be a fetus at 22 weeks, rather than at 20 weeks. Whether that is the case with various state bills is another question. Fetal pain legislation has been introduced in nearly half the states this year, and enacted in Arkansas.

Although almost all of these measures, like the federal bill, refer to "20 weeks," most of them also use the term "gestation" rather than "fertilization. And in the real world, that Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA difference matters. On the other hand, many in the antiabortion movement clearly understand the modes of action for contraceptive methods, especially the hormonal methods (see box, page 10).

Understanding that, they have to know that the end result of enforcing a definition that pregnancy begins at fertilization would implicate not just some hormonal methods, but all of them. This is clearly a cause for discomfort within the ranks of the abortion opponents. Some groups, notably including the National Right to Life Committee, try to avoid resources policy journal issue Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA, saying they have no position on contraception.

But many, including Concerned Women for America and Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA Secretariat for Pro-Life Activities of the U. Conference of Catholic Bishops, are clear and consistent: For them, pregnancy begins at fertilization, and Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA that "fact" implicates contraception, so be it.

As far back as 1981, Judie Brown, long-time president of the American Life League, made the point quite clear in testimony before a congressional committee: "However, once a chemical or device acts to destroy the newly fertilized egg, Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA is a brand new life, then we are not any longer dealing with a contraceptive.

We're dealing with an abortion. Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA the most high profile instance, the Senate rejected legislation introduced in the early days of the Reagan administration that tried to use a congressional "finding" that life begins at conception as a way to circumvent the need for a constitutional amendment Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA Roe v.

Wade and to ban abortion nationwide. One of the most contentious issues in that debate, aside from the obvious question of the propriety of a legislative body making such moral and ethical determinations, was the potential impact of that finding on many commonly used forms of contraception.

Testifying about the potential impact of the legislation, George Ryan, then president of ACOG, said, "I believe that it is realistic to assume that the IUD and the low-dose oral contraceptive pills could be considered as abortifacients and therefore declared illegal.

In 1998, during consideration of a measure to include coverage of contraceptive services and supplies in the insurance coverage purchased for federal answers and questions and their dependents, Rep. Chris Smith (R-NJ) offered an amendment to exclude coverage of "abortifacients. Nancy Johnson (R-CT) took the measure on directly, making the science behind the provision, and the motivation for it, quite clear: "Is there Menomune (Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine)- Multum limit to my colleague's willingness to impose his concept of when life begins on others.

Conception is a process. Fertilization of the egg is part of that process. But if that fertilized egg does not get implanted, it does not grow. The ongoing debate over emergency contraception has put the question of the dividing line between preventing and disrupting pregnancy back in the public eye. In a question-and-answer document developed in 2004, the FDA was explicit in describing the drug's method of action: "Plan B works like other birth control pills to prevent pregnancy.

Plan B Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- FDA primarily by stopping the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation).

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Comments:

25.09.2019 in 23:39 guizomacul1987:
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