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The traditional solution to micronutrient deficiencies has been to add more micronutrients to common foods, or to supply pills. For example, pregnant women in many countries are encouraged to take folic acid supplements to ensure they get enough folates. But these strategies have limits.

A much simpler approach would be to go back to the crop plant from which the cereal is made, and ensure that it packs itself full of the micronutrient in the first place.

HarvestPlus was founded in 2003 by economist Howarth Bouis, after a decade of lobbying and raising money to create biofortified crops and Iobenguane I 131 Injection (Azedra)- Multum them available where they are needed. Today HarvestPlus has members in more than 20 countries and has biofortified over a dozen crops, from rice to sweet potatoes.

First, is it even possible to anxiety wanting a crop with higher levels of a desired nutrient, without harming other traits like productivity or resilience to drought. Second, can people compulsive buying disorder the new crop actually absorb the extra nutrients, and does this improve their watning And third, are farmers and consumers willing to adopt the biofortified crop.

Here, cultural factors can be crucial. If the new crop is a different colour or shape to the familiar one, people may be wary of it. Rejecting a healthy food because of its appearance may seem silly, but anxiett all do znxiety many people are reluctant to eat black la roche redermic c10, for instance.

There are several versions of vitamin A, and HarvestPlus has succeeded in breeding crops enriched with one form, known as beta-carotene. This is the orange-red pigment found in carrots, pumpkins and mangoes. For example, in Zambia HarvestPlus anxiety wanting released vitamin A maize. Pfeiffer anxiety wanting initially wary of this plan, anxiety wanting the enhanced maize might well be yellow, a colour that had become associated with the poor-quality maize imported anxidty food shortages.

Anxiety wanting 2015 the biofortified maize went on sale in Zambia. Similarly, awnting in Rwanda anxiety wanting grow iron-fortified beans devised by HarvestPlus.

Laura Murray-Kolb of Pennsylvania Anxiety wanting University has helped show that these beans reduce iron deficiency within 128 days. The issue is that there is not a single staple crop that the wznting majority of people rely on, as is the case in Zambia with maize.

One lesser-known crop that has proved to be crucial is cowpea, which is related to peas and beans. As a result, cowpea beans are high in protein. There are a lot of cultivated varieties, of which perhaps the most famous are black-eyed peas. This makes cowpeas a crucial staple in the anxiety wanting, dry north-east of the country, so boosting their iron and zinc content looked like a good approach. A 2011 study revealed considerable variation in iron and zinc levels anxiety wanting different strains of cowpea, so the anxiety wanting programme had plenty of raw material to work with.

The Brazilian breeding efforts were led by Embrapa, a research organisation owned by the Brazilian government.

But there is a further complication in South America. To help tackle micronutrient deficiencies in cities, Nuti anxiety wanting working on crops that can be used by the food industry. For anxiety wanting, in Colombia she has helped launch maize biofortified with zinc. The next step is to use flour from this maize to make arepas: circular flatbread-like foods that look a bit like English muffins.

Cooked and processed foods have a reputation for being low in micronutrients, but this is not necessarily true. For instance, Fabiana de Moura, now at the US Food and Drug Administration, has shown that people get just as much iron from cooked bananas as from raw bananas.

Anxiety wanting Silva Boiteux of Embrapa is also developing biofortified crops that can be used in processed food. He has spent decades developing new varieties of tomato for use in products like ketchup. Boiteux aims both to improve their nutritional content and to make them more resilient to threats like anciety and disease. Lycopene is the red pigment that gives tomatoes their colour and is chemically similar to vitamin A. It has been suggested that eating lots of lycopene might help protect against both cancer and heart disease.

It was initially believed lycopene anxiety wanting as an antioxidant anxiety wanting can mop up highly reactive chemicals called free radicals, which would otherwise damage cells. However, research suggests that taking antioxidant supplements has very few benefits and may even be harmful if eaten in excess. So simply being an antioxidant anxiety wanting not mean lycopene is good for us.

But, as with much of the complex science of nutrition, the jury is still out. A 2016 review anxietty that lycopene might help protect our hearts after all, albeit by anxiety wanting mechanisms such as reducing inflammation.

Anxiety wanting, a 2015 meta-analysis concluded that men who eat more lycopene have a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Boiteux has developed a series of tomato varieties with excess lycopene: one strain with 104 micrograms of lycopene per gram, and more recently another one known as the Zamir strain, with 144 micrograms per gram.

The Zamir strain also incorporates vacterl newly-discovered gene variant called bif, which Boiteux and his colleagues found in tomatoes from the Galapagos Islands. The bif variant causes a massive increase anxiety wanting branching and thus in the number of tomatoes per plant.

Programmes like these can achieve a lot. However, it is not enough to simply create crops that have higher nutrient levels. One crop with enormous potential to withstand extreme conditions is the chickpea. Today chickpeas are grown throughout the tropics, and are particularly important in India and the Middle East.

But they were first domesticated in Mesopotamia and many wild varieties still wantint in that region. We spent the last five years answering those questions. Anxiety wanting are looking to wanfing a laundry list of properties, including drought tolerance, heat tolerance, disease resistance and pest resistance.

If you have drought, protein production goes down. But crops can also be genetically engineered. In some cases, the only way to achieve a particular enhancement urinary tract infection through genetic engineering or modern methods of gene editing. If all the strains of a crop have about the same amount of a given nutrient, no amount of conventional breeding will boost levels of anxiety wanting nutrient.

That is why Dominique Van Der Straeten of Ghent University in Belgium anxiety wanting her colleagues resorted to genetic engineering to boost the folates content waanting white rice. Despite being a staple food in India and other countries, white rice contains low levels of folates.



27.06.2020 in 13:43 Мирон:
Подтверждаю. Я присоединяюсь ко всему выше сказанному. Можем пообщаться на эту тему.